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Tor Network

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The Tor network is a group of volunteer-operated servers that allows you to connect for free and improve your privacy and security on the Internet. Individuals and organizations can also share information over the Tor network with ".onion hidden services" without compromising their privacy. Because Tor traffic is difficult to block and trace, Tor is an effective censorship circumvention tool.

Tor works by routing your internet traffic through those volunteer-operated servers, instead of making a direct connection to the site you're trying to visit. This obfuscates where the traffic is coming from, and no server in the connection path is able to see the full path of where the traffic is coming from and going to, meaning even the servers you are using to connect cannot break your anonymity.

Tor path Tor path

Tor circuit pathway - Nodes in the path can only see the servers they are directly connected to, for example the "Entry" node shown can see your IP address, and the address of the "Middle" node, but has no way to see which website you are visiting.

Connecting to Tor

There are a variety of ways to connect to the Tor network from your device, the most commonly used being the Tor Browser, a fork of Firefox designed for anonymous browsing for desktop computers and Android. In addition to the apps listed below, there are also operating systems designed specifically to connect to the Tor network such as Whonix on Qubes OS, which provide even greater security and protections than the standard Tor Browser.

Tor Browser

Recommendation

Tor Browser logo

Tor Browser is the choice if you need anonymity, as it provides you with access to the Tor network and bridges, and it includes default settings and extensions that are automatically configured by the default security levels: Standard, Safer and Safest.

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Danger

You should never install any additional extensions on Tor Browser, including the ones we suggest for Firefox. Nor should you manually enable HTTPS-only mode or edit about:config settings. Browser extensions and non-standard settings make you stand out from others on the Tor network, thus making your browser easier to fingerprint.

The Tor Browser is designed to prevent fingerprinting, or identifying you based on your browser configuration. Therefore, it is imperative that you do not modify the browser beyond the default security levels.

Orbot

Recommendation

Orbot logo

Orbot is a free Tor VPN for smartphones which routes traffic from any app on your device through the Tor network.

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For resistance against traffic analysis attacks, consider enabling Isolate Destination Address in SettingsConnectivity. This will use a completely different Tor Circuit (different middle relay and exit nodes) for every domain you connect to.

Tips for Android

Orbot can proxy individual apps if they support SOCKS or HTTP proxying. It can also proxy all your network connections using VpnService and can be used with the VPN killswitch in ⚙ SettingsNetwork & internetVPN⚙Block connections without VPN.

Orbot is often outdated on the Guardian Project's F-Droid repository and Google Play, so consider downloading directly from the GitHub repository instead.

All versions are signed using the same signature so they should be compatible with each other.

Relays and Bridges

Snowflake

Recommendation

Snowflake logo Snowflake logo

Snowflake allows you to donate bandwidth to the Tor Project by operating a "Snowflake proxy" within your browser.

People who are censored can use Snowflake proxies to connect to the Tor network. Snowflake is a great way to contribute to the network even if you don't have the technical know-how to run a Tor relay or bridge.

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Embedded Snowflake

You can enable Snowflake in your browser by clicking the switch below and leaving this page open. You can also install Snowflake as a browser extension to have it always run while your browser is open, however adding third-party extensions can increase your attack surface.

If the embed does not appear for you, ensure you are not blocking the third-party frame from torproject.org. Alternatively, visit this page.

Snowflake does not increase your privacy in any way, nor is it used to connect to the Tor network within your personal browser. However, if your internet connection is uncensored, you should consider running it to help people in censored networks achieve better privacy themselves. There is no need to worry about which websites people are accessing through your proxy—their visible browsing IP address will match their Tor exit node, not yours.

Running a Snowflake proxy is low-risk, even moreso than running a Tor relay or bridge which are already not particularly risky endeavours. However, it does still proxy traffic through your network which can be impactful in some ways, especially if your network is bandwidth-limited. Make sure you understand how Snowflake works before deciding whether to run a proxy.